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...NSE SHARE Index: 4264.66  UP by 3.08 points | Kakuzi Ord.5.00  77.00  -3.00 | Rea Vipingo Plantations Ltd Ord 5.00 16.45  0.00 | Sasini Ltd Ord 1.00 11.55  0.00 | AccessKenya Group Ltd Ord. 1.00 10.00  0.00 | Car & General (K) Ltd Ord 5.00 49.50 DNT | CMC Holdings Ltd Ord 0.50 10.40  -0.10 | Hutchings Biemer Ltd Ord 5.00 20.25 DNT | Kenya Airways Ltd Ord 5.00 39.50  0.00 | Marshalls (E.A.) Ltd Ord 5.00 14.20 DNT | Nation Media Group Ord. 2.50 173.00  -1.00 | Safaricom Ltd Ord 0.05 4.20  0.05 | Scangroup Ltd Ord 1.00 60.00  -0.50 | Standard Group Ltd Ord 5.00 39.50 DNT | TPS Eastern Africa (Serena) Ltd Ord 1.00  66.50  0.00 | Uchumi Supermarket Ltd Ord 5.00 14.50 DNT | Barclays Bank Ltd Ord 2.00 69.50  0.50 | Centum Investment Co Ltd Ord 0.50  22.25  0.25 | CFC Stanbic Holdings Ltd ord.5.00 79.00  0.00 | Diamond Trust Bank Kenya Ltd Ord 4.00 146.00  -1.00 | Equity Bank Ltd Ord 0.50 28.75  0.25 | Housing Finance Co Ltd Ord 5.00 28.00  0.75 | Jubilee Holdings Ltd Ord 5.00 187.00  1.00 | Kenya Commercial Bank Ltd Ord 1.00 23.25  0.25 | Kenya Re-Insurance Corporation Ltd Ord 2.50 10.60  -0.10 | National Bank of Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00 47.00  0.50 | NIC Bank Ltd 0rd 5.00 52.00  0.50 | Olympia Capital Holdings ltd Ord 5.00 5.00  0.05 | Pan Africa Insurance Holdings Ltd 0rd 5.00 76.00  -3.50 | Standard Chartered Bank Ltd Ord 5.00 275.00  3.00 | The Co-operative Bank of Kenya Ltd Ord 1.00 20.25  0.25 | Athi River Mining Ord 5.00 180.00  -1.00 | B.O.C Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00 150.00 DNT | Bamburi Cement Ltd Ord 5.00 197.00  0.00 | British American Tobacco Kenya Ltd Ord 10.00  280.00  6.00 | Carbacid Investments Ltd Ord 5.00 145.00  -1.00 | Crown Berger Ltd 0rd 5.00 32.50  -1.50 | E.A.Cables Ltd Ord 0.50 19.15  -0.40 | E.A.Portland Cement Ltd Ord 5.00 100.00  -3.00 | East African Breweries Ltd Ord 2.00 181.00  1.00 | Eveready East Africa Ltd Ord.1.00 2.55  0.00 | KenGen Ltd Ord. 2.50 15.50  -0.05 | KenolKobil Ltd Ord 0.05  9.40  -0.10 | Kenya Power & Lighting Co Ltd Ord 2.50 22.50  0.50 | Mumias Sugar Co. Ltd Ord 2.00 8.10  -0.30 | Sameer Africa Ltd Ord 5.00 6.15  -0.05 | Total Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00 28.00  0.25 | Unga Group Ltd Ord 5.00 10.35  -0.10 | City Trust Ltd Ord 5.00 186.00 DNT | Eaagads Ltd Ord 1.25 50.00  -4.50 | Express Ltd Ord 5.00 7.50  -0.20 | Williamson Tea Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00  200.00  0.00 | Kapchorua Tea Co. Ltd Ord Ord 5.00 125.00 DNT | Kenya Orchards Ltd Ord 5.00 3.00 DNT | Limuru Tea Co. Ltd Ord 20.00 305.00 DNT | Kakuzi Ord.5.00  77.00  -3.00 | Rea Vipingo Plantations Ltd Ord 5.00 16.45  0.00 | Sasini Ltd Ord 1.00 11.55  0.00 | AccessKenya Group Ltd Ord. 1.00 10.00  0.00 | Car & General (K) Ltd Ord 5.00 49.50 DNT | CMC Holdings Ltd Ord 0.50 10.40  -0.10 | Hutchings Biemer Ltd Ord 5.00 20.25 DNT | Kenya Airways Ltd Ord 5.00 39.50  0.00 | Marshalls (E.A.) Ltd Ord 5.00 14.20 DNT | Nation Media Group Ord. 2.50 173.00  -1.00 | Safaricom Ltd Ord 0.05 4.20  0.05 | Scangroup Ltd Ord 1.00 60.00  -0.50 | Standard Group Ltd Ord 5.00 39.50 DNT | TPS Eastern Africa (Serena) Ltd Ord 1.00  66.50  0.00 | Uchumi Supermarket Ltd Ord 5.00 14.50 DNT | Barclays Bank Ltd Ord 2.00 69.50  0.50 | Centum Investment Co Ltd Ord 0.50  22.25  0.25 | CFC Stanbic Holdings Ltd ord.5.00 79.00  0.00 | Diamond Trust Bank Kenya Ltd Ord 4.00 146.00  -1.00 | Equity Bank Ltd Ord 0.50 28.75  0.25 | Housing Finance Co Ltd Ord 5.00 28.00  0.75 | Jubilee Holdings Ltd Ord 5.00 187.00  1.00 | Kenya Commercial Bank Ltd Ord 1.00 23.25  0.25 | Kenya Re-Insurance Corporation Ltd Ord 2.50 10.60  -0.10 | National Bank of Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00 47.00  0.50 | NIC Bank Ltd 0rd 5.00 52.00  0.50 | Olympia Capital Holdings ltd Ord 5.00 5.00  0.05 | Pan Africa Insurance Holdings Ltd 0rd 5.00 76.00  -3.50 | Standard Chartered Bank Ltd Ord 5.00 275.00  3.00 | The Co-operative Bank of Kenya Ltd Ord 1.00 20.25  0.25 | Athi River Mining Ord 5.00 180.00  -1.00 | B.O.C Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00 150.00 DNT | Bamburi Cement Ltd Ord 5.00 197.00  0.00 | British American Tobacco Kenya Ltd Ord 10.00  280.00  6.00 | Carbacid Investments Ltd Ord 5.00 145.00  -1.00 | Crown Berger Ltd 0rd 5.00 32.50  -1.50 | E.A.Cables Ltd Ord 0.50 19.15  -0.40 | E.A.Portland Cement Ltd Ord 5.00 100.00  -3.00 | East African Breweries Ltd Ord 2.00 181.00  1.00 | Eveready East Africa Ltd Ord.1.00 2.55  0.00 | KenGen Ltd Ord. 2.50 15.50  -0.05 | KenolKobil Ltd Ord 0.05  9.40  -0.10 | Kenya Power & Lighting Co Ltd Ord 2.50 22.50  0.50 | Mumias Sugar Co. Ltd Ord 2.00 8.10  -0.30 | Sameer Africa Ltd Ord 5.00 6.15  -0.05 | Total Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00 28.00  0.25 | Unga Group Ltd Ord 5.00 10.35  -0.10 | City Trust Ltd Ord 5.00 186.00 DNT | Eaagads Ltd Ord 1.25 50.00  -4.50 | Express Ltd Ord 5.00 7.50  -0.20 | Williamson Tea Kenya Ltd Ord 5.00  200.00  0.00 | Kapchorua Tea Co. Ltd Ord Ord 5.00 125.00 DNT | Kenya Orchards Ltd Ord 5.00 3.00 DNT | Limuru Tea Co. Ltd Ord 20.00 305.00 DNT 
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Friday, 18 April 2008
As part of his investment analysis of Rwanda, Ritesh Doshi also took a closer look at the country’s tax regime and its recent amendments. As part of his investment analysis of Rwanda, Ritesh Doshi also took a closer look at the country’s tax regime and its recent amendments.

Rwanda: How Supportive is Rwanda’s Tax Code of New Investors?

The tax code was most recently amended in 2006, and included some more modern articles such as provisions against thin capitalisation of companies. Tax reform is once again being driven by recent membership of the East African Community (EAC), with the tax code likely to be amended before the end of the year in anticipation of full compliance with the EAC tax code in June 2009. The key areas of importance to foreign investors are the following:

Corporate Taxes

Corporate taxes are currently at 30%, having been reduced from 35% in 2006, which puts it at parity with the rest of the EAC. In addition to the corporate tax rate of 30%, a withholding tax of 15% is imposed on any declared dividends, implying an effective tax rate of 40.5%. Companies operating as sole proprietors are exempt from the withholding on dividends, although this opens them up to unlimited liability. A comparison yields the following:

 

Limited Company

Sole Proprietor

Profit Before Tax

USD100,000

USD100,000

Corporate Tax (30%)

(USD30,000)

(USD30,000)

Profit After Corporate Tax

USD70,000

USD70,000

Dividend Tax (15%)

(USD10,500)

None

Profit After All Tax

USD59,500

USD70,000


All companies are required to make a contribution of 5% of an employee’s gross salary as a social security payment.

The value-added tax (VAT) rate is 18%, and payable for most manufactured and imported goods, certain services and accommodation contracts of less than 90 day. This includes hotels and short-stay apartments.

Some provisions in the tax code, especially those relating to borrowing, may cause concern for investors in certain capital intensive industries. A company is only allowed to expense interest payable on loans that are equal to or less than four times the company’s equity capital. If this loan is foreign-currency denominated, a company can only claim interest expense relief of LIBOR + 1%, regardless of the cost of capital, while interest paid on any loans in excess of four times the equity capital cannot be claimed as an expense. There is some ambiguity about the treatment of foreign loan interest payments, with a number of parties stating that there is also a 15% withholding on them, which effectively treats them like dividends.


 
 
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